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- Big Idea 1: The relationship between the variables of a function can be represented visually by a graph.
- Big Idea 2: Functions can be represented in multiple, equivalent ways.
- Big Idea 3: Rate of change describes how one quantity changes with respect to another.
- Big Idea 4: Function families share similar graphs, behaviors, and properties.
Standards: F-BF.BBuild New Functions From Existing Functions ( 3Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. ) F-IF.AUnderstand The Concept Of A Function And Use Function Notation ( 1Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x)., 2Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. ) F-IF.BInterpret Functions That Arise In Applications In Terms Of The Context ( 4For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.^{★}, 5Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.^{★}, 6Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.^{★} ) F-IF.CAnalyze Functions Using Different Representations ( 9Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum. ) F-LE.AConstruct And Compare Linear, Quadratic, And Exponential Models And Solve Problems ( 1Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions., 1bRecognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another., 3Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function. ) F-LE.BInterpret Expressions For Functions In Terms Of The Situation They Model ( 5Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. ) N-Q.AReason Quantitatively And Use Units To Solve Problems. ( 1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays., 2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling., 3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. ) S-ID.CInterpret Linear Models ( 7Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data. ) | |

- Big Idea 1: A function’s rate of change and initial value determine its other properties and behaviors.
- Big Idea 2: Functions can be represented in multiple, equivalent ways.
- Big Idea 3: Function rules describe the quantitative relationships between variables.
Standards: F-BF.ABuild A Function That Models A Relationship Between Two Quantities ( 1Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. ^{★}, 1aDetermine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. ) F-BF.BBuild New Functions From Existing Functions ( 3Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. ) F-IF.AUnderstand The Concept Of A Function And Use Function Notation ( 2Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context., 3Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n ≥ 1. ) F-IF.BInterpret Functions That Arise In Applications In Terms Of The Context ( 4For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.^{★}, 6Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.^{★} ) F-IF.CAnalyze Functions Using Different Representations ( 7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.^{★}, 7aGraph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima., 7bGraph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions. ) F-LE.AConstruct And Compare Linear, Quadratic, And Exponential Models And Solve Problems ( 1Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions., 1aProve that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals., 1bRecognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another., 2Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table). ) F-LE.BInterpret Expressions For Functions In Terms Of The Situation They Model ( 5Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. ) | |

- Big Idea 1: Linear functions are characterized by a constant rate of change.
- Big Idea 2: A solution is a value that makes a function rule true.
- Big Idea 3: Linear functions can be represented in multiple, equivalent ways.
Standards: A-APR.APerform arithmetic operations on polynomials. ( 1Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. ) A-CED.ACreate Equations That Describe Numbers Or Relationships ( 1Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions., 3Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods., 4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R. ) A-REI.AUnderstand Solving Equations As A Process Of Reasoning And Explain The Reasoning ( 1Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. ) A-REI.BSolve Equations And Inequalities In One Variable ( 3Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. ) A-REI.DRepresent And Solve Equations And Inequalities Graphically ( 11Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.^{★} ) A-SSE.AInterpret The Structure Of Expressions ( 1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.^{★}, 1aInterpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients., 1bInterpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r). ) ^{n} as the product of P and a factor not depending on P | |

- Big Idea 1: Systems of Equations (or Inequalities) contain functions that share the same set of variables.
- Big Idea 2: A solution simultaneously makes each function rule in a system of equations (or inequalities) true.
- Big Idea 3: The solution to a system of equations (or inequalities) can be represented in multiple, equivalent ways.
Standards: A-CED.ACreate Equations That Describe Numbers Or Relationships ( 2Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales., 3Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods., 4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R. ) A-REI.CSolve Systems Of Equations ( 5Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions., 6Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables. ) A-REI.DRepresent And Solve Equations And Inequalities Graphically ( 10Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line)., 11Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.^{★}, 12Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes. ) | |

- Big Idea 1: Quadratic functions are distinguished by a power of 2.
- Big Idea 2: Equivalent representations of a function highlight different properties.
- Big Idea 3: Functions within a family are transformations of the parent function.
Standards: F-BF.ABuild A Function That Models A Relationship Between Two Quantities ( 1Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. ^{★}, 1aDetermine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. ) F-BF.BBuild New Functions From Existing Functions ( 3Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. ) F-IF.AUnderstand The Concept Of A Function And Use Function Notation ( 2Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context., 3Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n ≥ 1. ) F-IF.BInterpret Functions That Arise In Applications In Terms Of The Context ( 4For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.^{★}, 5Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.^{★}, 6Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.^{★} ) F-IF.CAnalyze Functions Using Different Representations ( 7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.^{★}, 7aGraph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima., 7bGraph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions., 8Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function., 9Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum. ) F-LE.AConstruct And Compare Linear, Quadratic, And Exponential Models And Solve Problems ( 1Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions., 1bRecognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another. ) F-LE.BInterpret Expressions For Functions In Terms Of The Situation They Model ( 5Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. ) | |

- Big Idea 1: Quadratic expressions can be written in multiple, equivalent ways.
- Big Idea 2: Quadratic functions have 0, 1 or 2 real roots.
- Big Idea 3: Quadratic equations can be solved by rearranging the equation into an equivalent form.
- Big Idea 4: Quadratic functions can be represented in multiple, equivalent ways.
Standards: A-APR.APerform arithmetic operations on polynomials. ( 1Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. ) A-APR.BUnderstand The Relationship Between Zeros And Factors Of Polynomials ( 3Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial. ) A-CED.ACreate Equations That Describe Numbers Or Relationships ( 1Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. ) A-REI.BSolve Equations And Inequalities In One Variable ( 4Solve quadratic equations in one variable., 4aUse the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)^{2} = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form., 4bSolve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x^{2} = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b. ) A-SSE.AInterpret The Structure Of Expressions ( 1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.^{★}, 1aInterpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients., 1bInterpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)., 2Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. ^{n} as the product of P and a factor not depending on PFor example, see x. ) A-SSE.BWrite Expressions In Equivalent Forms To Solve Problems ( 3Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.^{4} – y^{4} as (x^{2})^{2} – (y^{2})^{2}, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x^{2} – y^{2})(x^{2} + y^{2})^{★}, 3aFactor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines., 3bComplete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines., 3cUse the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15. ) N-RN.BUse Properties Of Rational And Irrational Numbers. ( 3Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational. ) ^{t} can be rewritten as (1.15^{1/12})^{12t} ≈ 1.012^{12t} to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15% | |

- Big Idea 1: Measures of center are used to interpret univariate data.
- Big Idea 2: Visual models illustrate the correlation of bivariate data.
Standards: S-ID.ASummarize, Represent, And Interpret Data On A Single Count Or Measurement Variable ( 1Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots)., 2Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets., 3Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). ) S-ID.BSummarize, Represent, And Interpret Data On Two Categorical And Quantitative Variables ( 5Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data., 6Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related., 6aFit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models., 6bInformally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals., 6cFit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association. ) S-ID.CInterpret Linear Models ( 7Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data., 8Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit., 9Distinguish between correlation and causation. ) |